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fourth book makes known the events occurring after the death of Marcian, and
Morian, and Anthemius, and Severus, and Olybrius, who reigned in all twelve
years, as the Chronicle testifies. These
events took place in Alexandria, and in Ephesus, in the days of Leo during a
period of twenty years
Alexandrian Church being in the condition that we have described, the report of
the death of Marcian reached them, and they all took courage, and consulted with
the whole order of the monks as to whom they should make the bishop of the
at that time Dionysius the general was not there, but was on a visit to Egypt.
And they agreed upon Timothy, a man expert in business and of ascetic life; who
had been brought by force from the wilderness, to Cyril, and ordained as
presbyter by him.
he was of the same faith as Dioscorus; and he was well versed in all the truth
of the faith of the doctors of the Church. This man, along with the monks, the
people of Alexandria seized, and brought to the great Church which is called
Caesarian. And they sought for three bishops, according to the canonical
statute, to consecrate him.
since two Egyptian bishops were present, it was necessary that some other bishop
should be found. And on making diligent inquiry, some of the people heard of
Peter the Iberian, who had left Palestine and was sojourning there in
they ran quickly and laid hold of the man; and carried him on their shoulders,
not letting him touch the ground. And as they were bringing him along, a voice
was heard in the minds of the clergy, and of the monks, and of the believing
citizens, like that voice which Philip heard respecting the eunuch of Candace
the queen, saying, "Consecrate him by force, even though he be unwilling,
and set him on the throne of Mark."
he was weak in body through much self-mortification, so that, on account of his
emaciation, the Proterian party used jestingly to style him the
when Dionysius the general heard of the matter, he became uneasy, lest he
might receive blame for there being only two bishops in the city, when the king
heard it. And accordingly he returned, and taking the whole Roman force with
him, he took Timothy prisoner.
many were killed. And Dionysius gave orders that they should carry him off to a
place called Cabarsarin. And upon his departure the conflict between the
citizens and the Romans became severe. And there was a great tumult, and
slaughters were matters of daily occurrence, more so because Dionysius kept
inciting and urging on the Romans.
so the custodian of the Church funds expended them upon the Romans who were
contending with the people. But it happened that numbers of them and of their
wives fell and perished in the conflict. And they were divided into parties, and
fought one against another.
when confusion like this had prevailed in the city for many days, Dionysius was
at his wits' end, so he brought a certain monk Longinus, celebrated for chastity
he intrusted Timothy to him; that he might restore the bishop to the city and to
his church, upon the condition that the fighting should cease, and that there
should be no more slaughter.
when Timothy had returned to the great church from which he had been forcibly
removed, and Proterius had taken for himself the church which is called
Quirinus, and easter time came round, children without number were
brought to Timothy to be baptized; so that because of their multitude those who
were writing and reading out their names became weary; but only five were
brought to Proterius.
the people were so devotedly attached to Timothy that they drove Proterius out
of the church of Quirinus; and slaughter ensued.
when Proterius continued to threaten the Romans, and to display his rage against
them; because they took his gold, but did not fill their hands with the blood of
his enemies: then, indeed, a certain Roman was stirred to anger in his heart,
and was boiling over with rage,
he invited Proterius to look around and he would show him the corpses of the
slain as they lay. And suddenly he drew his sword and stabbed Proterius in the
ribs along with his Roman comrades.
they despatched him, and dragged him to the Tetrapylum, calling out respecting
him as they went along, "This is Proterius." Yet some suspected that
it was some crafty plot, but the Romans left the body, and went away.
the people, perceiving this, became also greatly excited, and they dragged off
the corpse, and burnt it with fire in the Hippodrome. Thus in the end death
overtook Proterius, who had done evil to the Alexandrians, just as George the
Arian, and he suffered at their hands in like manner, and so was it done to him.
Timothy, when he appeared before them as the only chief priest of Alexandria,
showed that he was really what a priest should be.
the silver and the gold that were given to the Romans in the days of Proterius,
he expended upon the poor, and the widows, and the entertaining of strangers,
and upon the needy in the city. So that, in a short time, the rich men,
perceiving his honorable conduct, lovingly and devotedly supplied him with
funds, both gold and silver.
the presbyters and the clergy belonging to the Proterian party, knowing all his
virtues and his angelic mode of life, and the devotion of the citizens to him,
these joined together in deceit in which they entreated him that they might be
also promised to go to Rome, to admonish Leo concerning the novelties, which he
had written in the Tome. Among them were some who were eloquent, and of great
wealth and dignity, and of high birth, who had been called to the clerical order
who were honored in the eyes of the citizens of Rome; and they presented the
petition on their behalf to Timothy. And Eustace of Berytus also wrote
recommending their reception.
the jealousy and hatred of the citizens against these persons were great, on
account of the events, which had occurred in the days of Proterius, and the
various sufferings, which they had endured.
they would not consent to their reception, but they prepared the others to cry
out, "Not one of them shall set his foot here, neither shall the
transgressors be received."
was the reason why matters were disturbed and thrown into confusion. For when
these men were ignominiously refused, they betook themselves to Rome, and they
told about the contempt of the canons, and about the dreadful death of
they said that he died for the sake of the Synod and for the honor of Leo; and
that they themselves, also, had endured many indignities; and further, that
Timothy had come forward in a lawless manner and taken the priesthood.
they rendered the latter odious, and made the whole business appear disgraceful
in the eyes of Leo; and they stirred him up against Timothy.
how it came about that Timothy was given up, I shall now relate. Marcian the
king having died, and Anthemius, and Severus, and Olybrius having reigned for
only short lives, in Italy and the regions beyond, Leo the First received the
kingdom in the territory of Europe in conjunction with them and after them. And
he was both a believer and vigorous, but simple in the faith.
when Leo the king learned of the evils which occurred in Egypt, and in
Alexandria, and in Palestine, and in every place; and that many had been
disturbed on account of the Synod.
that in Ephesus there had been much slaughter, upon the entrance of John, after
Bassianus had resigned and fled because he would not subscribe the transactions
this John, being inflamed with desire for pre-eminence, betrayed the rights and
honors of the see; so that in Ephesus they called him "the traitor"
unto this day; and they blotted his name out of the book of life.
when he received a letter from Timothy of Alexandria, he was willing to convene
a Synod. But Anatolius, the bishop of the royal city, prevented him; not that he
was able to find any fault with the written statement of Timothy, but he was
very uneasy lest, if a Synod were assembled, it might put an end to all the
transactions of Chalcedon.
anxiety was not for the faith, but rather for the privileges and honors, which
had been unjustly granted to the see of the royal city.
Anatolius persuaded the king not to assemble a Synod, but by means of written
letters, called Encyclicals, to inquire what the mind of the bishops were
respecting the Synod of Chalcedon and the consecration of Timothy.
the king began to write to the bishops about Timothy and the Synod of Chalcedon,
in the encyclical letter, to the following effect:
ye, without fear of man or partiality, and unbiased by influence or by favor,
setting the fear of God alone before your eyes, and considering that to Him
alone ye must make your defense and give your account,
me briefly the common opinion held by you the priests in our dominion, what ye
think right, after having carefully investigated the transactions of Chalcedon,
and concerning the consecration of Timothy of Alexandria."
when such letters as this from the king was given to Leo of Rome, concerning
Timothy, and the other on behalf of the Proterian party, in which he also
asserted of the clergy of Constantinople that they were of the same mind as
he called Anatolius insolent; and he defended the Tome (book), which he himself
wrote respecting Eutyches, and which was accepted in the Council of Chalcedon.
a similar strain however he wrote distinctly concerning the taking of the
Manhood by Christ in this letter also. And Leo the king sent it on to Timothy of
Alexandria. And, upon the receipt of it, the latter wrote a petition to the king
kind and indulgent king! Since among wise men there is nothing more honorable
than the soul, and also we have learned to despise the things of the flesh, and
not to lose the soul; therefore, as far as it lies in my might, I am careful to
keep my soul, lest before the time of judgment I may be condemned as a lover of
the flesh, and prepare for myself the fire of Hell.
this I think, that all who are wise concerning that which is good, desire that
nothing hateful to their brethren should ever occur. And accordingly, in writing
this petition I assure your Serenity that from my youth I have learned the Holy
Scriptures, and I have studied the divine mysteries contained in them.
even until now, I have ever been careful to hold the true faith as it was
delivered to us by the apostles, and by my fathers the doctors. And, being
united to them by the grace of God our Savior, I have reached my present age.
I confess the one faith which our Redeemer and Creator Jesus Christ delivered
when He became incarnate, and sent out the blessed apostles, saying, 'Go, teach
all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy
the Trinity is perfect, equal of Nature, in glory and blessedness. And there is
not anything less or more in it. For thus also the three hundred and eighteen
blessed fathers taught concerning the true incarnation of our Lord and Savior
Jesus Christ, that He became man, according to His dispensation, which He
with them I agree and believe, as do all others who prosper in the true faith.
For in it there is nothing difficult, neither does the definition of the faith,
which the fathers proclaimed, require addition. And all holding other opinions,
and corrupted by heresy, are rejected by me.
myself I also flee from them. For this is a disease, which destroys the soul,
namely, the doctrine of Apollinaris, and the blasphemies of Nestorius, both of
which hold erroneous views about the incarnation of Jesus Christ.
divide asunder the dispensation of the only-begotten Son of God: and those who
say with respect to His Body that it was taken from Heaven, or that God the Word
was changed, or that He suffered in His own Nature.
I say to any who have fallen into one or other of these heresies, 'Ye are in
grievous error, and ye know not the Scriptures.
And with such I do not hold communion, nor do I love them as believers.
But I am joined, and united, and truly agreeing with the faith which was defined
at Nicea; and it is my care to live in accordance with it.
when Diomedes, the distinguished Silentiarius, came to me and gave me the letter
of the bishop of Rome, and I studied it, I was not pleased with its contents;
then lest the Church, O Christ-loving man, should be disturbed, I as yet have
neither publicly read nor censured it.
I believe that God has put it into the mind of your Serenity to set right the
statements in this letter, which are a cause of stumbling to the believers; for
these statements are in accord, and agreement, and conjunction with the doctrine
was condemned for cleaving asunder and dividing the incarnation of our Lord
Jesus Christ, in respect of natures, and persons, and properties, and names, and
operations. Who also interpreted the words of Scripture to mean, that which is
not contained in the Confession of Faith of the three hundred and eighteen.
they declared that the only-begotten Son of God, Who is of the same Nature with
the Father, came down, and became incarnate, and was made man; and suffered, and
rose again, and ascended to Heaven; and shall come to judge the quick and the
natures, and persons, and properties were not mentioned by them, nor did they
divide them. But they confessed the divine and the human properties to be of One
by the dispensation. Accordingly, I
do not agree with the transactions of Chalcedon, because I find in them
divisions and cleavage of the dispensation.
now, O victorious king, receive me, for I am speaking this confidently on behalf
of the truth; that your Highness may prosper as on earth, so also in Heaven. And
accept this my petition with good will, for in this letter from the West there
runs confusion likely to cause stumbling; for it cleaves asunder the
I pray that this letter may be annulled, so that Christ may be purely
by all tongues that He truly suffered in the flesh; while He remained without
suffering in His Godhead, which He has with the Father and the Spirit.
I entreat and beseech your honored Majesty that orders be sent to all men to
hold to the Confession of the faith, as defined by our three hundred and
eighteen fathers, which, in a few words, declares the truth to all the Churches,
and puts an end to every heresy and all false doctrine that causes stumbling;
and which itself stands in no need of correction.
wrote confidently, as above, concerning the letter of Leo and the Synod of
Chalcedon. The other bishops however, the Metropolitans of every place, having
received the encyclical letter of the king, testified to what was done by them
in Chalcedon, to which also they agreed.
they censured the consecration of Timothy, whom Leo, the bishop of Rome, even
named "the Antichrist." They say, indeed, that the other bishops also
were influenced to write thus by the instigation of Anatolius, and his letters
Amphilochius of Side alone showed truth and uprightness without fear. And he and
the bishops of his province wrote confidently, censuring and reviling the
transactions of the Synod, and the doctrine of the Tome, telling of the violence
and partiality there displayed, and confirming their statements by proofs and
copious testimony from the Holy Scriptures and the Fathers.
moreover, besought the king that the transactions of Chalcedon should be
cancelled, since they were a cause of stumbling to the believers, as well as of
confusion. Nevertheless, he censured the consecration of Timothy, and said that
it had been done in a none canonical manner.
man, indeed, who testified thus confidently and truly to the king respecting the
Synod, fell into danger from the Nestorian party, in consequence of the
malignity and treachery which they exhibited towards him; for he was the only
one of all the bishops who had the courage to revile the Synod with its
transactions, and also the Tome.
Aspar, who was general at that time, although he was an Arian, pleaded and
begged for him that such a truthful priest should not be exposed to danger. And
thus, indeed, Amphilochius was delivered from danger.
in his endeavor to correct the evils, which were done in the days of Marcian,
the king was hindered by the bishops. And by their means also Timothy was
condemned to banishment in Gangra.
since Anatolius of Constantinople was the one to instigate the bishops to make
these statements to the king in the Encyclicals, you will learn from his letter
to the king, which I have written below.
bishop of Constantinople, to the believing and Christ-loving king, victorious
Augustus, Leo the emperor. It is a subject of prayer with me, Christ-loving and
believing king," etc.
a little further on he says: "Those audacious acts which have been
committed in Alexandria, do not suffer me to remain silent.
as becomes one holding the priesthood of this your royal city, being attached to
the peaceable will of your Majesty, which desires that the canons of the Fathers
should not be despised, but that the laws should be maintained, I have testified
thus to the pious chief priest Leo and the chaste Metropolitans of your
I weep for the canons which have been despised by the wicked deeds of Timothy;
since the records sent to your Majesty respecting him declare that he has
trampled upon the laws of the Church and of the world; and that he has loved
vainglory, according to the saying of Scripture, that 'the wicked man is a
despiser, even when he is falling into the depth of evils.
5. And the rest of his letter will be understood from this specimen; how he was the cause of the letters sent by the bishops to the emperor, in which they agreed to the transaction of the Synod. But many senators and citizens, having learned this respecting Anatolius, withdrew from his communion.
Banishment of Timothy .
1. But, because the king's order respecting the departure of Timothy was sent to Alexandria at this time, the general was consequently much distressed, and felt himself constrained to suffer many things rather than that the city should lose such a priest.
since he saw the slaughter which was threatened against him by the Proterian
party, and especially as the members of that party had taken refuge
the king, and were aided by all the bishops; this same Stilas, the general,
thought it well that he and the bishop should betake themselves for refuge to
the baptistery of the great Church.
he did so for two reasons: one was, that they themselves might be preserved from
harm; and the other, that they might not be the cause of the loss of life and of
when Timothy had taken refuge at the font of the baptistery, the clergy of the
Proterian party paid no regard either to the priesthood, or to the chastity, or
to the age, or to the ascetic life, or to the labors of the man, or indeed to
the place where he had taken refuge; but with an armed force, they snatched the
chief priest from the very font, and dragged him away.
as soon as the report of this reached the people, they killed more than ten
thousand there to rescue the priest from them. However, after the Romans had
slain many of the Alexandrians, the man was taken; and he went out across Egypt
to Palestine, that his journey might be along the sea of Phoenicia.
when the cities and the inhabitants of Palestine and the seacoast heard it, they
came to him to be sanctified, and that the sick among them gain healing for
their diseases through the grace of God which was attached to his person;
they snatched torn pieces of stuff from his garments, that they might have them
as charms to protect them from evil. And
when he arrived at Berytus, Eustace the bishop urged the citizens there to
receive him with public honor.
he begged Timothy, upon his entry into the city, to pray for it; and the latter
stood in the midst of the city and made supplications and prayers to God for it,
and blessed it.
Auxonius, the brother of Eustace, who was at that time an interpreter of the
law, acting upon the advice of his brother, spent the whole night with Timothy,
speaking earnestly about the faith, and against Nestorius.
during the whole of his long discourse Timothy was a silent listener; but when
at length Auxonius, after many words, ceased speaking, Timothy said to him,
"Who could persuade me that these three fingers should write upon the paper
upon hearing this, Auxonius was very sad, and began to weep. Then Timothy,
encouraging both him and his brother Eustace, who afterwards joined them, said,
yourselves to me, and let us contend together for the faith, and let us prevail;
so that either we shall recover our bishoprics, or else we shall be driven into
banishment by our enemies, and live a sincere life with God."
he alleged, as an excuse, the dedication of a church, a great temple that
Eustace built and named "Anastasia"; and Timothy said, "Shall we
wait for the dedication of an earthly temple? But if you obey me, then we shall
hold our festival in the heavenly Jerusalem?"
Timothy received the same kind of honor along the way, until he reached Gangra.
Another Timothy, who was the bishop of the Proterian party, and was
1. But the members of the Proterian party, because of the order of the king and the governors of the cities who were obedient to the command, elected one of themselves, also called Timothy Salophaciolus, and placed him upon the episcopal throne.
was a man who sought popularity;
was soft in his manners and feeble in his actions; as events, indeed, proved.
when all the people of the city forsook the church, and assembled, along with
the believing clergy, in the monasteries, he was neither enraged nor distressed.
But when his own clergy were anxious to restrain the people by means of the
Roman armed force, he would not allow them.
it happened that a certain woman met him carrying her child, who had just been
baptized by the believers, and was being borne along in triumph according to the
usual custom. And his attendants
were very indignant at it.
he ordered them to bring her to him quietly; and he took up the child and kissed
him, and he urged the mother to take whatever she wanted. And he said to his own
followers, "Let us and these
Christians, each as he thinks right, believe and honor our Lord."
though he did all this, he could not appease the rage of the citizens; and
because he dreaded the fate of Proterius, he would not walk abroad without the
as in proportion the people loved Timothy the believer, so they hated this man.
And they never ceased imploring and entreating the king that Timothy should be
restored to them from banishment.
of this Salophaciolus they say that he tried hard to persuade the Alexandrians
to hold communion with him; and, as if rejecting the Synod, he wrote in the
Diptych the name of Dioscorus. And when Leo of Rome heard it, he excommunicated
on one occasion, when he went up to Constantinople, he had a great dispute with
Gennadius, the successor of Anatolius, in the king's presence. And he said,
"I do not accept the Synod which would make you see the next in importance
to Rome, and cast contempt upon the honor of my see."
the king laughed when he saw and heard the two priests contending for the
he wrote to tell about this dispute to the bishop of Rome; who at that time
replied in writing, that the privileges of each see should be restored according
to their original constitution.
Gennadius of Constantinople and his adherents did not desist from their
persecution of Timothy, even when he was in banishment. For they persuaded the
king to command his removal from Gangra to Cherson, which is a region inhabited
by barbarous and uncivilized men.
the bishop of Gangra heartily consented to this, on account of the envy which he
felt towards the believing, the virtuous, and miracle-working Timothy, the
friend of the poor; because he used to receive gifts from the believers of
Alexandria and Egypt and other places, and to make liberal distribution for the
relief of the needy.
having embarked on board ship, and launched upon the sea, though he was tossed
in the midst of the winter, yet he reached Cherson without danger. And when the
inhabitants of the country learned the reason, they were filled with admiration
for him; and they became followers of his faith, and submitted themselves to his
the hatred which the Nestorian party entertained against him was caused by his
diligence in continually writing reproaches and censures upon the Synod and the
Tome, and sending them forth on all sides; thereby encouraging the believers.
he corroborated his words from the Holy Scriptures, and the doctors of the
Church, from the time of Christ's preaching even to his own day.
consequence of these writings, those persons who understood the matter left
Gennadius of Constantinople and joined in communion with Acacius the presbyter
and Master of the Orphans, the brother of Timocletus the composer, who joined
the believers, and strenuously opposed the Nestorians;
he also set verses to music, and they used to sing them. And the people were
delighted with them, and they flocked in crowds to the Orphan Hospital.
the king ordered that the blessed Mary should be proclaimed and written in the
book of life as Theotokos, on account of Martyrius of Antioch, who was an
avowed Nestorian, and would not now consent to teach these things, who was also
Gregory of Nyssa was summoned by the king to put an end to the doctrine of the
Nestorians at that time, as some monks went on a mission to the king about the
matter of Martyrius. And Gennadius had died; and Acacius, the Master of the
Orphan Hospital, was appointed as his successor.
a promise had been made by the latter that he would put an end to the Tome of
Leo, and the Synod of Chalcedon, and the innovations and additions, which had
been imposed upon the faith in it.
affairs of the Church of the royal city, indeed, were in the condition described
above. But Timothy, when in banishment, wrote not alone against the Nestorians,
but also against the Eutychians.
this appears from his letters to Alexandria and Palestine, against those who
hold the opinions of Eutyches, and do not confess Christ to be of the same
nature with us in the flesh as well as of the same nature with the Father in the
it so happened that the Eutychians, Isaiah, bishop of Hermopolis, and
Theophilus, a presbyter of Alexandria, were sojourning in the royal city with
the desire of making money. And they circulated a report that Timothy also was
of their way of thinking.
when he heard this he wrote a letter dealing with the doctrines of Eutyches and
Nestorius, which he sent to Constantinople signed with his own signature. And
when the bearers of this letter became known, they were treated by these
men with contempt; and were exposed to danger, because he called the followers
of Isaiah "deceivers."
he sent again another letter respecting them, confirming it by quotations from
the fathers. And it was to the following effect:
· The letter of Timothy
Lord and God, Jesus Christ, in order that He might redeem us and set us free
from the dominion of Satan, and make us meet for the blessings of Heaven,
appointed for us, through the holy fathers, the law of those things which are
pleasing to Himself.
He gave commandment that no man, thinking to honor, should insult the Merciful
One; but that He should receive the dispensation for our redemption. And He
said, 'Turn not aside to the right hand or to the left, but walk in the way of
again He said, 'be not righteous overmuch, nor count thyself too wise, lest thou
fall into error. And do not fall deeply into error, nor be stubborn, lest thou
die before the time'; the meaning of which is, lest the evil one should infuse
into thee anything contrary to My commandments, and set a stumbling-block for
thee on the way of the kingdom along which thou art walking, and slay thee.
he said, 'In the way wherein I walked they laid snares for me.' Take heed
therefore to thyself, and do not turn aside nor depart from the way of the
kingdom. For this is the desire of the evil one, that if thou fill up much
wickedness, he will meet thee, and thou wilt fall into danger.
suppose a man seeking to enter a city surrounded by water; if he attempt to pass
through on foot he will sink and be drowned in its depth; if, on the other hand,
he be afraid to pass over, he cannot enter the city at all; but if there be a
convenient ford, and he try to cross over by it, then he can enter the city.
like manner also we being anxious to enter Jerusalem, which is above, if we do
not follow the Law of God, which we have learned from the holy doctors, cannot
indeed stand upon the rock of our leader Peter Kepho, the true faith.
thou shalt indeed be called Kepho, and upon this rock I will build My Church;
and the bars of Sheol shall not prevail against it.
Let no man be so led astray by the evil one as to imagine that he can
subvert the true faith.
if he contends, it is against his own soul that he contends, for nothing can
overcome the faith. And this is the meaning of that expression, 'The bars of
Sheol shall not prevail against it.'
if any man stand not upon the truth of the faith, but is
he thinks to confer honor,
he rather offers insult.
if he accept the Law of the Lord, which has been laid down for us by the saints,
he survives visions of death and the verge of Sheol. For we have learned that
apart from the standard of the faith, we cannot please God.
things I have written, because I have heard that some persons are contentious,
and are not obedient unto the Law of the Lord which has been laid down for us by
the saints; and which declares that our Lord, by His incarnation, was of the
same nature with us in the flesh which He took from us, which doctrine they have
even rejected - if they are not of this mind.
let no one, thinking to honor God, by insulting His mercy in refusing to obey
the doctrine of the holy fathers, who have declared that our Lord Jesus Christ
is of the same nature with us in the flesh, and is one with His flesh.
I have heard also the holy apostle teaching and saying, 'Forasmuch as the
children were partakers of the flesh and the blood, He also (partook of the
same) in like manner; that by means of death He might destroy the power of
death, who is Satan; and might deliver all who were held in the fear of death,
and were subject to bondage, that so they might live for ever.
He did not take (the nature) from angels, but He took it from the seed of
Abraham. And it was fitting that He should be made in all points like unto His
brethren, and that He should be a merciful priest, and faithful with God; and
that He should make reconciliation for the sins of the people.
in that He suffered being tempted, He is able to succor them that are tempted.'
For this expression, 'He was made like us in all points,' teaches all who desire
to be meet for the blessings of heaven and to be redeemed, that they must
confess the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ as being from Mary the holy
Virgin and Christ.
was of the same nature with her and with us in the flesh, and is of the same
Nature with the Father in His Godhead.
the fathers condemned, and we also agreeing with them anathematise in like
manner, any who do not hold their doctrines.
Moreover, in our letter we have added some quotations from them,
attesting the truth of this doctrine.
this, indeed, the apostle writes expressly, that, "other foundation can no
Christ; but let every man take heed how he builds." Now it is necessary
that a foundation such as this should be in conformity and likeness with those
that built upon it.
the Word, because He is the Word and the only-begotten one, Who has no peers
that could be the sons of the Godhead in the same manner as He. But inasmuch as
He became man, of our nature, and clothed Himself with our body, we are of the
same nature with Him.
in the matter of our humanity He is the foundation, so that we may be precious
stones, and be built upon Him, and be a temple for the indwelling of the Holy
in like manner as He is the foundation and we are the stones built upon Him, so
also He is the vine and we are the branches, hanging from Him and in Him; not
indeed in the nature of the Godhead, for that would not be possible, but in the
it is fitting that the branches should be like the vine, because we also are
like Him in that body which He took from us.
And we confess that He is the Son of God, and God in the Spirit, and man
in the flesh.
there are not two natures in one Son, one to be worshipped and the other
unworthy of worship; but there is one Nature of God the Word, Who became
incarnate, and Who, along with the flesh in which He is clothed, is to be
worshipped with one worship.
the same, in his letter to Epictetus
there are many, hiding themselves and blushing, who imagine that, if we affirm
the body of our Lord to be from Mary, we introduce a fourth Person into the
Trinity; but if we affirm the body to be of the same Nature with the Word, the
Trinity thereby remains without the addition of any foreign element.
if we maintain with respect to His body that it is human; then since the body is
foreign to the Nature of God, when the Word is in it, there must of necessity be
a Quaternary instead of a Trinity, in consequence of the addition of the body.
they talk in this way they do not consider how their own argument breaks down
and fails. For even if they deny the body to be from Mary, they no less than
those who hold a distinct body also seem to hold a Quaternary.
in like manner as the Son is of the same Nature with the Father, and is not the
Father but the Son in Person, yet being of the same Nature with the Father; so
also, if the body is of the same Nature with the Word, it is not the Word, and
since there is another, the Trinity, even according to their showing, is found
to be a Quaternary.
the true, indivisible and perfect Trinity can never receive any addition. What
then must be the mind of these persons, and how can they be Christians who hold
that there is another besides Him who is God?
body of our Redeemer, derived from Mary, was in reality and in truth human in
nature, because it was like our body; since Mary is our sister, and we all being
descended from our father Adam.
there is no change whatsoever in the Divine Nature, for it is not subject to
diminution or increase. And when He says, "Glorify Me," that is the
voice of the body, and is spoken concerning the body. For glory was affirmed
with respect to His whole Being, for He is all one.
by this the "glory which I had with Thee before the world was," He
testified concerning His Godhead that It is always glorified, for such glory
properly belongs to It, even though this affirmation was made equally concerning
His whole Being.
in the Spirit He is of the same Nature with the Father invisibly; and since the
body also was united to Him in His Nature, it is equally included under the
again, also, His Godhead is comprehended under the name because it is united to
our nature, and the nature of the body is not converted into the nature of God
by the union, and conjunction of the name of the nature.
as the nature of the Godhead was not changed by the conjunction of the human
body, and by the appellation of a body of our nature.
indeed, who confess that the God of heaven became incarnate from the Virgin, and
that He being joined to His flesh was one, give themselves needless trouble in
contending with the maintainers of the opposite view, who affirm that there are
John proved our Lord to be one by saying, "The Word became flesh."4
And Paul by saying, "There is one Lord Jesus Christ, through Whom are all
things." Now, if He Who was
born from the Virgin was named Jesus, and He it is through Whom were all things;
He is one nature because He is one Person, Who is not divided into two.
the nature of the body was not separate, nor yet did the Nature of the Godhead
remain distinct at the Incarnation; but just as man, composed of body and soul,
is one nature, so also He, Who is in the likeness of men, is one Jesus Christ.
says that Christ appeared in the world in fantasy, and does not confess Him to
have come in the body, as it is written: let him be accursed.
says concerning the body of Christ that it was without soul and without mind,
and does not confess His humanity to be perfect, He being the same, according as
it is written: let him be accursed.
says that Christ took a part of man only, and does not confess Him to have been
in all points like as we are, yet without sin: let him be accursed.
says that Christ was liable to change and
and does not confess Him to be unchanged in Spirit, and uncorrupt in the flesh,
as it is written: let him be accursed.
says that Christ was perfect man separately (and God the Word separately), and
does not confess Him to be one Lord Jesus Christ: let him be accursed.
says that there was One Who suffered and Another Who did not suffer, and does
not confess God the Word, Himself impassible, to have suffered in His flesh, as
it is written: let him be accursed.
says that there was One Who existed before the worlds, the Son of God, and
another, who at length came into being; and does not confess Him to be the same
Who was before the worlds and at length came into being, according as it is
written, "Christ yesterday and to-day, let him be accursed.
says that Christ was of the seed of a man in like manner as the rest of mankind,
and does not confess Him to have been incarnate, and to have become man, of the
Holy Spirit and also of the Virgin Mary, of the seed of the house of David, as
it is written: let him be accursed.
says that the body of Christ was of the same nature as His Godhead, and does not
confess Him to be God before all worlds, Who "emptied Himself and took upon
Him the form of a servant," as it is written: let him be accursed.
says that the body of Christ was not a created body, and does not confess the
uncreated God the Word to have received incarnation and manhood from created
man, as it is written: let him be accursed.
how can one affirm the body of Christ to be uncreated; since that which is not
created is not susceptible of suffering, or wounds, or contact. But Christ
Himself, after His resurrection from the dead, showed His disciples the prints
of the nails and the wound of the spear, and afforded them bodily contact with
although the doors were shut He entered, that He might display the power of His
Godhead and the reality of His body. For the flesh, which comes into being after
lapse of time, cannot be said to be of the same nature with the eternal Godhead.
For whatsoever in nature and property is incapable of change is of the same
He is the true incorporeal God who appeared in the flesh, a perfect Being; He is
not two persons nor two natures. For we do not worship Four, God, and the Son of
God, and a man, and the Holy Spirit; but, on the contrary, we condemn those who
act so wickedly, and who would place man in the glory of God.
we hold that God the Word became man for the sake of our redemption, and that He
took our likeness upon Him, and that He who came in our likeness is in His true
Nature the Son of God, but in the flesh a man, our Lord Jesus Christ.
the basil of Caesarea
which is made is not of the same nature as its maker, but that which is begotten
is of the same essence as its begetter. Accordingly, that which is created and
that which is born are not one and the same.'
again, 'the children have the same nature as the parent, even though he that was
born has come into being in a different fashion. For Abel, who was born as the
result of copulation, was in no respect different from Adam who was not born,
but was formed.
again, if they who are different in the manner of their creation are different
also in their essential being, then men must be unlike one another in nature.
For there is one creation of Adam, who was formed out of the earth; and another
creation of Eve, who was made from a rib; and another of Abel, who was from
another of Him Who was from Mary, who was from a virgin alone. And, indeed, the
same might be said with respect to birds and beasts. The nature, indeed, of
those who are begotten must of necessity be like their begetters.
now are generally accepted doctrines, that He Who was exalted far above us, for
our sake took our qualities upon Him and became man; not that through the body
He should thenceforth be limited to the body, for He is not so limited, since
His Nature is infinite; but that He might sanctify man by His body He became as
leaven to the whole lump, and drew it to Himself.
him who was guilty he released from his guilt. He was, for our sake, in all
points like as we are, sin only excepted, in body, soul, and mind, of which the
ordinary mortal man is composed.
Who manifested Himself was God in respect of His spiritual being, but human in
respect of Adam and the Virgin from whom He was derived; from the former as His
ancestor, but from the latter who was His mother according to the (natural) law,
and who gave Him birth in a manner superior to nature, and not after the
again, with respect to the dispensation of our Redeemer in the flesh, we believe
that God the Word remaining unchanged became flesh, with the object of renewing
mankind. And He, being the true Son of God by the eternal generation, became man
by the birth from the Virgin.
He, Who is perfect God in His Godhead of the same Nature with the Father, and
also perfect man of the same bodily nature with mankind by birth from the
Virgin, is one and the same.
whosoever says that Christ had a body from heaven, or that His body was of His
nature: let him be accursed.
denies that the flesh of our Lord is from the Virgin, of the same nature as
ours: let him be accursed.
holds concerning our Lord and Savior Who was from the Holy Spirit and from Mary
the Virgin in the flesh, that He was not composite and without consciousness,
and without reason, and without mind: let him be accursed.
shall dare to say with respect to Christ that He suffered in His Godhead, and
not in the flesh, as it is written: let him be accursed.
would separate and divide our Lord and Savior, and say that God the Word is one
Son, and the man whom He took another, and does not confess Him to be one and
the same: let him be accursed.
Who transcends all our conceptions and surpasses all our thoughts, and is
exalted above angels and above all intelligent powers, was content to become
man; and He took flesh, which was formed; from the earth and the clay.
this He did by entering the Virgin's womb, where He was carried for the period
of nine months; and after His birth He sucked milk; and indeed He
suffered all things pertaining to the human lot.
was He called a Table? Because when I eat the mystery, which is upon Him, I am
was He called a House? Because I dwell in Him.
was He called an Indweller? Because I am His temple.
was He called a Head? Because I am His member.
He set His love upon a harlot, what did He do? He did not call her up, for He
would not bring a harlot up to Heaven. But He came down; as she was not able to
ascend to Him, He descended to her.
coming to her hovel, He Himself was not ashamed; and He found her drunk.
how did He come? Not openly in His own Nature; but He became like the harlot
herself in nature though not in will; lest, when she saw Him, she might be
confounded through terror and flee.
came to her having become man. And how did He become man? He was conceived in
the womb, and He grew gradually.
is the day on which the Eternal One was born and became man, a thing which never
took place before, though He did not change from being God, for it was not by a
change of the Godhead that He became man; neither from a human original by
growth did He become God;
the impassible Word suffered no change in His Nature by becoming flesh. He that
is seated upon the throne high and lifted up was laid in the manger.
that is simple and without body, and cannot be touched, was embraced by human
hands. He Who severs the chains of sin, was wrapped in swathing-bands.
any man teaches doctrine contrary to the Holy Scriptures, and says that the Son
of God is One, and he who is man from Mary is another, who became a son by grace
as we; so that there would be Two dwelling in the Deity; One, of
the same Nature with God, and the other who became so by grace, the man from
whosoever, further, says that the body of our Lord was from above, and not from the Virgin Mary; or that the
Godhead was converted into flesh; or that It was confounded or changed; or that
the Godhead of our Lord suffered;
O that the body of Christ,
inasmuch as it is from men, should not be worshipped, and not that the body is
to be worshipped because it is that of our Lord and God; —the man who asserts
these things we condemn, for we obey the apostle when he says, "Whosoever
preaches to you a gospel different from that which we have preached to you, let
him be accursed.
From Theophilus of Alexandria
1. The Word, the living God, the
Lord of all, and Creator of the worlds, did not clothe Himself in a heavenly
body as in some costly substance and come to us, but He displayed in clay the
greatness of the skill of His art.
For, when He would restore and
renew man who was formed from the clay, He was born as man from the Virgin, who,
corresponding to us in all points, sin only excepted, and coming into being by a
miracle, shone upon us and blessed our human nature.
The first man however also
came into being in a manner different and distinct from us, as the intercourse
and association of man and woman did not minister to his creation.
4. And if they allow, in his
case, that he was formed out of the earth by the will of God, no parents having
ministered to his birth by the conjunction of male and female; why do they
quarrel with the Incarnation of our Lord and Savior, which was from the Virgin?
5. And when they oppose us in
this matter, we ask them whether is it easier that a man should come into being
from the earth without parents, or that our Savior Christ should be born from
the Virgin, with flesh, and soul, and consciousness?
6. And the first man, indeed, who
was from the earth, partook of flesh and blood in all the likeness of humanity;
but our Savior, by His own power, created and prepared from the Virgin a body
for Himself with flesh, and blood, and soul, and consciousness.
7. And we confess that He
consorted with men, even though in His holy Incarnation the sensual intercourse
of man and woman had no part.
8. It now was not difficult for
God the Word to prepare for Himself a temple from the Virgin's body, for the
purpose of our redemption. For consider, indeed, that God also is never polluted
by natural copulation when He creates man; and how much more then, by His mercy,
may He become incarnate from the blood of the Virgin, for the purpose of our
9. So truly, the Theotokos still
remained a virgin after giving birth to Christ by a miracle; and He was
partaker, in like manner as we, of flesh and blood, not of His own nature, as
the heretics say, but of our nature, according to the saying, "He took the
seed of Abraham.
10. We assert that the body of the
Word was His own, and not that of some other man separately and distinctly who
is held to be different from Christ the Son. And as the body of each one of us
is said to be his own, so also we believe respecting the one of Christ.
And although He took the body
from our race and our nature, because He was born of the Virgin; yet it must be
held and declared to be His own body. And, since God the Word is the Life in His
own Nature, He declared His body to be a life-giving one.
12. And therefore He became
to us a blessing, giving life to all.
(See footnote at end) And if it be not so,
how then is He like us, while yet remaining as He was before, God the Word?
However, grant to Him that in the unity of the Person His body is not separated,
and do not denude Him of His flesh.
13. And thus I rightly worship one
Son, Who is of the same Nature indeed with the Father in the Godhead, but of the
same nature with us in the manhood. And as for those who delight to believe this
truth, Christ will enlighten their knowledge also of Himself by His mysteries.
14. It is right, indeed, for us to
say and believe that God the Word, still remaining of the same
Nature with God
the Father, was sent and became man, of the same nature with us.
15. He is and He remains as He is,
and by becoming man He was not changed. And He was sent to preach deliverance to
the captives and light to the blind.
· From his letter to
16. They say, if Christ be perfect
God and perfect man, and the same is of the Nature of the Father in the Godhead
and of our nature in the manhood, how is He perfect if His human nature is not
seen? And how is He of our nature if that actual and self-same nature which is
ours be not seen?
The answer which we have given
at the beginning should suffice to enlighten them. For if, when speaking of one
nature of the Word, we refrained from saying "incarnate," rejecting
the dispensation, their word would be plausible when they ask, "How can He
be perfect in manhood and in nature?"
But since our word indeed
testifies that He is perfect in manhood and in nature by saying that He became
flesh, therefore let them cease from these objections, and not lean upon a
In the might, indeed, of His
Godhead He took the hand of the daughter of Jairus, saying, "Maid,
arise." And He did not give the command in word merely, and the work was
accomplished according to His own will.
20. But that we might believe that
His holy body was of the same nature with our bodies, while it also was
glorious, and divine, and raised above our measure, it being also His own, He
wrought in it. For which reason, also, He called His own body the "Bread of
21. And so these fathers and holy
men like them have with one consent condemned every man who is not obedient to
23. And I have written to
Alexandria, to the clergy, to the monks, to the sisters the virgins in Christ,
and to the believing people; and I have sent the letter to you, my dear friends;
and that ye may know what I have written, I, Timothy, have marked the salutation
with my own handwriting.
24. Whosoever does not believe in
the doctrine of the holy fathers, in accordance with the tradition of our Lord
Jesus Christ: let him be accursed. For it is right for each one of us either to
stand fast in the faith and to live in it, or else to die on behalf of it, and
to live for evermore.
25. My brother Anatolius the
presbyter, and Theophilus, and Cyrus, and Christodorus, and Gennadius the
deacons, and the members of the brotherhood who are with me, send you their
26. The foregoing letter, with the
quotations appended thereto, we have written down here. By reading and
considering it, lovers of the doctrine will find in it a sufficient refutation
of the notion of Nestorius, who holds that there are two Natures in the unity of
And also of the teaching of
Eutyches, who does not confess that God the Word became perfect Man, and
remained without change God the Word, One Person who became flesh.
28. And, besides this letter, we
have subjoined another explaining the right method of reception in the case of
those who repent and turn from heresy.
· The letter of Timothy to
Timothy to the God-loving
bishops, and presbyters, and deacons, and archimandrites, and sisters, and
faithful people in the Lord, greeting.
Inasmuch as Isaiah and
Theophilus have been for a long time heretics in secret, whom I admonished by
letter, urging them to agree to the holy doctrine of the fathers, and they have
not been obedient to the letters which I wrote to them to Constantinople,
containing proofs from Scripture, and the doctors of the Church, that our Lord
Jesus Christ was of the same nature with us in the body;
And furthermore they have
shown no respect for my sufferings in being banished from place to place, but
have behaved treacherously towards the bearers of my letter, and also informed
the prefects against them, and they stirred up others, saying, 'It is a
forgery,' even though they knew my signature that was on the letter.
32. And I waited a considerable
time for them though I knew their disposition, and they made no reply, either by
word of mouth or in writing. And upon reflection, I thought it right to send
them another letter, so I wrote urging them to come and
confess the true faith.
in my admonition I reminded them that God does not condemn nor reject those who
repent. And I cited the examples of holy men who sinned and denied the Lord, but
who afterwards repented; and God accepted their repentance, and accounted them
worthy of their former dignity; such was the case of David, and Peter, and Paul.
I wrote to them that in like manner, if they would repent and confess the body
of Christ to be of the same nature as ours, I would continue to entertain my old
esteem and love for them; and I would maintain them in the honor of their rank.
they showed no affection for me, but treated me with contempt.
And after this I waited four years more for them, without exposing them
by name. And they still persevered in their disobedience, and showed no sign of
repentance, and they neither received the doctrine of the holy fathers nor me.
they associated with some heretics who openly deny that our Lord took a human
body, and that He became perfect man from us. And while they are sojourning in
the royal city they creep into houses, and greedily grasp at lucre, which they
hold as their god,
I wrote to them that they should depart from it, but they would not. And they
continued to lead simple folk astray, and to circulate other rumors respecting
me, with the object of doing me great harm. And being distressed and saddened by
them, I was compelled to excommunicate them by their names lest they should
cause many to stumble and err.
I now give sentence upon Isaiah and Theophilus, who say that the body of the
Lord is of His own divine Nature, and not of ours, and who deny His true
humanity, thereby cutting themselves off from the fellowship of the holy fathers
and mine; that no man henceforth hold communion with them.
John the evangelist commands, saying, 'My brethren, believe not every spirit,
but try the spirits whether they be of God; for indeed, many false prophets have
appeared in the world.
hereby the spirit, which is from God, is known, every spirit, which confesses
that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh, is of God, and every spirit, which does
not confess Jesus, is not from God.
this is the spirit of the false Christ. Because many deceivers have gone forth
into the world, who do not confess Jesus Christ to have come in the flesh; this
is a deceiver and a false Christ.'
again, 'If any man comes to you not preaching this doctrine, do not either
receive him into the house or greet him, for he that greets him is partaker with
his evil deeds.' And because of the
apostle who says, 'Whosoever preaches to you a gospel different from what we
have preached to you, let him be accursed.'
am clear from their blood and from that of their associates; for I have not
ceased to show them, according to the will of God, what is for their good.
Paul further exhorts us, saying, 'after thou hast warned a heretic once or
twice, and he has refused thine admonition, avoid him. Since by continuing in
his sin he is corrupted and guilty. But
the blessed Dioscorus the Confessor wrote sentiments agreeable to these of the
holy fathers, and after the same manner, in his letter to Secundinus.
the letter goes on to say, "Now, I beseech you, brethren, by the Lord Jesus
Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, concerning those who repent and turn from
the heresy of the Diphysites, as I wrote in a letter a year ago, that
you, the bishops, and clergy, and other believers, all who are subject to you,
help them, and extend the hand to them in the Lord.
when anyone is converted let him have one year of repentance, and after that let
him be established in his former rank, and his dignity be restored to him. And
if there be no believing bishop, let the clergy or the believing bishops, who
from any cause happen to be in the country, fill the place in the love of God,
even though those who repent are not subject to them in jurisdiction.
same order and regulation Cyril and Dioscorus observed of one year's repentance
for bishops, presbyters, and deacons; after which they should be established in
their former rank. Pray for me that God may help me in this conflict; the Lord
be with you. Amen!
letters he wrote advising them how they should receive converts from the
Proterian party. And he became so
celebrated, even with the people of India, that when their bishop died they,
being of the same faith with him, sent a request to him that he would appoint a
bishop for them.
indeed, the Alexandrians never ceased sending petitions and supplications to the
king on his behalf, time after time, and stirring up popular tumult for him.
as soon as they heard of the death of Leo and the succession of Basiliscus, they
sent a deputation of certain chosen monks, Paul the Sophist, and James, and
the chief priests who held office from the Council of Chalcedon until the time
of Basiliscus, and the encyclical letters which he and Marcus, wrote, and up to
the reign of Zeno, who became emperor, are as follows:
Rome, Leo, and his successor Hilary. Of
Alexandria, Proterius, who was killed. And his successor was Timothy the Great,
who was banished. And until he returned
by means of the Encyclicals, they appointed another Timothy, called
Constantinople, Anatolius, and his successor Gennadius, who was succeeded by
Acacius. In Ephesus, John, who took the place of Bassian, and Paul,
who was banished, and who returned by means of the Encyclicals, but was
Antioch, Domnus, and his successor was Maximus, and then Martyrius, who was
driven out; and after him Julian, who was succeeded by Stephen; and then another
Stephen, who was driven out; and Peter, who returned from banishment two or
three times. And in Jerusalem,
Juvenalis, and Anastasius his successor.
King Leo the emperor died, and there arose after him Basiliscus, and Marcus, and
Zeno, who had retired for a little time to the strongholds of Salmon; but he
afterwards returned and became emperor, and Basiliscus and Marcus were driven