L I G H T   I N   S P A C E

           CHAPTER  5           INDEX TO OTHER PAGES

  1. The spectroscope is quite a simple tool, a piece of glass shaped like a prism, or a typical V-slot in an otherwise flat lens.  It is also a very useful tool, for with it we can calculate velocity by relative shift.  

  2. But the same can be deceptive when the subject to be measured is from beyond our solar system.  For to measure anything in outer space is first of all to know that the velocity of light is "not" dependent on its source.

  3. Thus we must be careful how we interpret spectral shifts.  Light as a yardstick is only as good as the understanding we have of light in the nature thereof.  And so with this in mind let us follow a few lines of light as it traces itself through the universe.

  4.   A straight line is the shortest distance between two points.  This holds true even in space.  If we assume space as a sphere and that the same can be warped so that light travels along geodesic lines on account thereof, we are in wretched shape.  For light will always travel in a straight line regardless of anything as trivial as magnetic or gravitational pull.  

  5. In the first place, light is not at all susceptible to gravity, nor to the curvature of magnetic lines, the evidence of which is so abundant that I need not commend further thereon.  Yet light will travel in "apparent" curved lines, but for an altogether different reason.

  6. The factors that bear upon the velocity and direction of travel enumerate to, "refraction" "reflection" and upon "dislocation".  Refraction then is contiguous upon density, upon temperature, and upon the angle of incidence.  

  7. Dislocation on the other hand is a term for light when it is "carried" sideways by the movement of the carrier (the media).  The universe then is filled with temperatures and consequently with densities - resulting into the changing direction and velocity of light.

  1. Figure 5-1, The light from a star in a single solar system is dislocated from its straight line of sight by the movement of the media.  For as the star rotates and thus the whole system rotates, planets inclusive.

  2.  The light then as it speeds straight forward, is nonetheless carried sideways with the media wherefore it will exit somewhat to the left from a straight line of sight, as illustrated noting point X1.

  3. If on the other hand the system were not in a rotating mode, the light would have exited at point X.  And this last statement would be correct even if the whole system was moving as indicated by the arrow.  

  4. For as long as the media of the system between the star and point X moves with the system as it moves, the light moves relevant to that media upon which it 'must" depend for its transmission as well as its speed.

  5. Reference figure 5-2, The same is true for a galaxy.  The light entering at point A, and leaving at point Q1 for all apparent observation passed in a straight line through it.  Yet in reality it passed by a curved line, the 3M media dislocating it just as it did in our example with the solar system.  The light thus followed the broken line rather than the solid line in our illustration. 

  6. At this point let us ask into which direction the light will proceed once it has left the galaxy at point B?  Will it take Bl, after the curved trajectory, or will it be after the straight line we drew through it passing direction B2.  

  7. The correct answer is B2, For although the light passed by the curved trajectory, the light itself is not aware thereof.  It, for all it knew never did change from its straight line, but passed straight on, wherefore at point B, the line of trajectory for the light is still just as it entered towards B2.


  1. Reference figure 5-3;  In the previous figure we did not take in account any variation within the system except its media as a whole moving in a slow rotation.  

  2. This time however let a beam of light depart from star X84 to point 1.  By a straight line of sight, if the light were to pass un-obstructed nor dislocated it would come to our eyes at point A.  

  3. Point 1 however is the boundary of the star's own system where it was red shifted by 1000 km/sec.  And combining refraction as well as dislocation, taking the moving media of the galaxy into account, the beam heads for a location noted point 2. 

  4. Here the light enters the densely packed center of the galaxy where it attains a blue shift of 200 km/sec.  It thus refracts and is slowed by 200 km/sec heading for point 3.  At point 3 it will of course again receive a red shift increasing its velocity by the same 200 km/sec, and consequently refracts to head for a star called Y63, point 4.  

  5. And since the light there is just grazing the star itself, its atmosphere acting like a huge prism, the light refracts for a new heading point location E.

  6.   While heading for location E, it however became to be dislocated again by the moving media which caused the light to finally exit the galaxy at point 5, and heads for the general location noted G.  

  7. The encounter with star Y63 gave the light a blue shift at 3000 km/sec, while in leaving this was red shifted to a degree slightly higher amounting to 3020 km/sec.  

  8. Hence, the final alteration added another red shift since the galaxy moving at 10.000 km/sec - is as compared to only a 1000 km/sec movement of the media outside of the galaxy, yet moving in like direction. 

  9. Now let us look at the comparison.  The distance from star X84 to point 5 is 7.5684-15 km, or 600 light-years.  Yet it took the light 600 years and 36 days to cross that distance.  

  10. The 36 days account for the 150 light-years at some 299.800 km/sec within the center mass of the galaxy, (which is its relative velocity, not counting anything else there).  

  11. If thus we were on a journey to star X84 and followed a straight path from point location G we would arrive at an altogether different star and location, a star that is some 250 light-years removed from X84.


  1. Reference figure 5-4: To do this just once more, let us have three galaxies, and let each one move a bit different from the other whereby to determine dislocation taking into account only the major factors. 

  2.   Galaxy Q has a width of 1.0-12 km, which at 3V will take 3.3-6 seconds to cross.  Movement of galaxy Q is at 1000 km/sec (800 parallel 200 angular).  This adds 2.6-9 km to the total distance in which it will be measured against space.  

  3. The light itself however will only travel a total distance relevant to the galaxy at 1.0-12 km in 3.3-6 seconds, the accrued space distance being 1.0026-12 km.  

  4. The light itself moved in a straight line from A to B, as it was  dislocated with the galaxy.  It then exits at point B1, at which point it enters tranquil space in a distance to galaxy X at 9.0-13 km, or 3.0-9 seconds. 

  5.   Galaxy X has a real diameter of 9.0-12 km moving parallel at 2.000 km/sec.  In the 3.0-7 seconds it takes the light to cross this galaxy it will have moved up by a distance of 9.0-10 km.  And so the light again enters tranquil space at point F1 crossing 4.0-12 km in 1.3-7 seconds, and plunges into galaxy Y at point H.  

  6. This galaxy having only an angular velocity to that of the trajectory of the light, at some 6000 km/sec, will not therefore add nor subtract from the space velocity of the light.  Yet it will displace the light from point M to M1.  Galaxy Y then is 1.6-7 seconds or 5.0-12 km. 

  7.   From point P we could consider to behold the light in a straight line from where it had started.  Yet we must relocate ourselves unto point P1 in order to view the light.  This small dislocation now is some 9.96-10 km, or a distance of nearly four centuries of travel at the speed of 30.000 km/sec.  

  8. In angles of degrees the difference is minute, but to travel such a minute change in degrees at right angle movement is not so minute, and we have been speaking of a star that is not all that far removed from us.  

  9. The scientist by their means would have given the star a distance of 1.0069-14 km, while its real distance is 400.000.000.000 km further away minus its angular gain. 

  10.   Refraction of light plays a devastating role in finding any object at a straight line of sight.  And that which we behold in the sky is thus rarely at a straight line of sight.  

  11. And when we combine changes in velocity with the change in direction there is literally no way to determine a real velocity of any object in the heavens, or its distance from us, or its real position for that matter. 

  12.   The spectral shift may be deceptive for the purpose to which we use it.  For that which we receive from outer space is the net result of who knows how many shifts one way or the other.  

  13. Anything coming from our rear is usually red shifted, and from our heading it would be blue shifted, but even the lenses of our telescope shifts the wavelengths during any period of the year when we recede or approach upon the light. 

  14.   And so it is conclusive that we do not have any measures in the universe, nor do we have calculations on distances, as also the locations of the stars are not what they show unto us.


   The motion of light is dependent on the universal media, (nature).

    The velocity of light is by the momentum of the 3M general.

         M, is the potential to transpose a coordinate event per unit of time terms of net velocity.

        The velocity of light relative to its carrier - is constant through all media regardless of density.

        The motion of light is relative within 3M space, and space itself.

        The motion of light is not dependent on its source.

        3M curvature, is the universal curvature of magnetic nature.  (Reference to entire systems in general).

        3M reference to the mass in its magnetic form.

        3M general, are nature's general lines of motion, of any and all objects within any given space.

        3M motion, the same as for 3M general except for the emphasis of the word, or term.

       True light, a faculty of our spirit.

        Color, a faculty of our spirit.

       Cr/w, carrier wave.  Reference to the lines of force extended from magnetic and/or electrical sources.

        Rd/w, Rider wave, reference to all waves transposed through the media.

        Dislocation, the movement of light at right angle to its line of travel by the movement of the media.

       Refraction, change of light in its trajectory by the transition of media density, the angle of change corresponds to the index of velocity, and the index of incidence.

        Dispersion, light refracted according to the incidence of their varying wavelengths.


        Eyesight, and hearing.  =  By waves passed upon him in length and frequency.

       Taste and smell.  =  By the coordinate formation of elements.

       Feeling.  =  By the motion of nature's media in the rate and change thereof.

        Thought.  =  A faculty of man in his spiritual nature, and not implemented by physical nature.

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