"We now regard lines of force merely as directions along which magnetic
force acts, but no longer consider them as endowed with physical reality."
When we step in our car to drive to a nearby town, neither the car nor we ourselves can be considered to have passed upon it. And how then did we get there?
According to Faraday, we are not real, nor our cars, and the road merely a direction. Yet I seem to remember getting there, and with my car upon a road, all of which seemed very real to me, the only item that seems to me unreal - is Faraday.
To understand magnetic lines of force, we must understand the substance along which the force becomes a force. For contrary to Faraday, nothing shall become real as a force except upon something real such as nature.
Atoms are reality, and as such, parts in motion are reality. And since these move by a system the term "coordination" also becomes reality. Nature in reality thus is "matter in motion by coordination".
Coordinates provide nature with its many systems among which the atomic system is most fundamental. The forces known as electrical and magnetic come to life by the countless many so called atoms lending their orbital motion to produce lines of movement.
As then motion is force, so force is motion, and as a car may pursue a linear path by the angular movement of the wheels of the vehicle, so electro-magnetic waves may pursue their linear path by the angular movement of the orbiting electrons.
What therefore may be the basis for electro-magnetic waves? Quite simply V=c. Meaning that the motion or force is equal to velocity at the tune of 300.000 km/sec.
But how did we arrive at that value? We did so by measuring the speed of light relative to density by which we came to a velocity of light in free space.
Any comparison therefore, or any pulse or modulation inflicted upon the coordinate motion of that momentum, will instantly be taken away at 300.000 km/sec. Consequently, we have our entire wave spectrum.
(A secret: Atoms do not provide movement, a source provides movement to them.)
Fundamentals to wave progression
Here again let us take a closer look at the fundamentals of these systems of force and motion, which is the atom in its so called planetary being (Figure 10-1). The nature of the atom, in this respect is by two factors; there is both a stationary and a moving factor.
The endless number of stationary points (bases) which in turn become structures into any and all dimension form grids. And by its moving points it forms movement in the way of forces and wavelengths to again any and all directions and in any magnitude for length to frequency and amplitude.
The ways in which they may transmit the progression we call waves. Sound in a compression upon the substance, in which the first atom will instill its momentum upon the next in line thus producing a wave progression conducted over and upon the cores of nature (Figure 10-1, A to B etc).
If however we inflict a pulse upon the steady stream passing along the perimeter of the atom, we implement a pulse upon the moving "pathways" of the engines (atoms) of nature, hence, the essence of the (so called) E-M waveform. Then again note the difference "how" and "why" light travels so much faster than sound.
To create a sound waves we must quite physically move the cores of the atom, but for "light" it can stay perfectly well in place, the waves passing along its perimeter.
Since therefore the momentum of the particles in motion seem to be a fixed constant unaffected by pressure, temperature, or gravity, it has received the fixed value of Vc. (velocity constant)
and elasticity on the other hand affect the speed of sound, wherefore its
velocity varies accordingly. Within
space, where the atoms are too far apart for one to implement its momentum upon
the next, no sound can be transmitted. (The
same applies to light on the basis of a factor and spacing comparable to its own
Light in free space, travels on the basis of two laws. A simple wave formation cannot be continued where there are neither atoms nor the resilient connection of their coordinates in line (Pathways, (figure 10-1)
Just how far the atoms in free space must be spaced before this connection is broken is hard to tell since no such space as not to conduct light has been found.
we go by comparison, sound to travel 1000 km/sec, and light 300.000 km/sec,
the difference would be 300.000 to one, and that I construe as a large
The first law by which not only light, but radio waves, and magnetic waves as well, are transmitted, is the above mentioned Vc, the interactive movement of all electrons in their angular format providing the linear momentum.
This, for the nature of light waves, may be compared to a pebble on a
conveyer belt, while for radio waves it may be compared to a pulse being
transposed by a moving spring.
The second law, which applies to the progression of light, is the law of "once in motion stays in motion". This of course implies that there is more to light than just the wave, and we are speaking of what Newton envisioned as "corpuscles".
In this manner atoms may be spaced very far apart before the
light shall lose its momentum. (like saying
its the stork to deliver babies, but then man loves it that way)
This last law may also apply to radio waves, for even wave compression seems to have a momentum whereby it advances itself.
The two laws seem to compliment each other. For without the essence of the angular's of nature the law of "once in motion stays in motion" would have a diminishing value by the resistance posed unto it by the electrons.
The (E-) M spectrum
Reference figure 10-2; The magnetic spectrum ranges from one end of nature to the other, it passes all magnitudes of nature. At the base of the ladder we begin with "gamma" waves going on up over light and radio waves to electric and magnetic waves. This chart can be categorized where each may be defined by nature and by length.
Magnetic and electric waves stand out by themselves as waves that only exist when tied to a source. While all other waves may continue without attachment to their source.
It also begins with something as simple as "alignments" up to
modulation, and resonance, are the three factors most responsible for the waves
in the first category, while simple right angle movement together with
appropriate composition is for those in the second category
The nature of the magnetic wave is most interesting; its ability to conduct and pass through all substances makes it most unique among the forces of nature.
And yes, magnetic is a "force", with its waves being thought of as "lines" of, since it seems in-appropriate to call a straight line a wave or even a curved line as a wave in comparison to the rest of the spectrum. In fundamental terms, the line of magnetic is a single complete circle (Figure 10-3-M).
It is also in this way that I said, "it is most unique," for within a circle there is no beginning nor is there an end. And since the line of magnetic is a moving potential, it in one sense of the word is "perpetual".
There is no
middle, no supply, no demand; it is as were it self-sufficient.
These sentiments may not be fully so, since there is much more here than
what I elect to say, or what meets the eye.
A circle, though it is unique, bears no multiplication. Or does it? Yes it will, but here again there is more to it than what meets the eye.
As for our purpose here, when a half wave is brought upon the circle together with what we call, a material structure able to draw, capture, and maintain it, the single circle bears multiplication in its now dual configuration (the figure eight (figure 10-3 m-dual).
And not only does it now bear multiplication into infinity, but it has being and also direction, it no longer is merely angular but has found a linear momentum (Figure 10-4-Im). Moreover, it has found both sides of the coin, or as one might say; "It has become a coin", since a single sided coin cannot exist.
Together with its material structure, in which it rests, it
now has an ingoing and outgoing, or this may also be construed as having a
beginning and end. And we can say
that now that it is dual it has an insistence upon a factor called "time
in its essence".
When passing an electrical current through a wire, it seems that with the flow of current a magnetic force is associated. The reason for this lies in the fact that the electrical current itself is a magnetic force with the field outside of the wire merely an extension of the flow contained within the wave-guide (the wire).
When we speak of tubes that serve as guides for microwaves, we can also speak of copper wire as guides for the waves of electrical current. A standard generator produces electricity by twisting a magnetic field-line into a wave formation wherein the flow of current is into one direction.
Let lines f be the
stationary field, with r the
direction of rotation of the armature. The
induced (electro) motive force will then be of two apparent directions, the first
an angular (arrows p and q)
by the linear flux (f).
The second will be a linear flow (arrows m) by the angular motion of the armature.
And to do this once again: First recall the criteria that linear's are by angular's, and visa versa. This applies to all motions inclusive the fundamental ones.
At point A in the illustration (Figure 10-5) imagine the wall of the magnet as were there teeth upon it, and the copper rods as were they gears to engage these teeth.
The rotation of the copper rods would then follow the natural turn of
direction (arrows P and Q) each one in what appears to be opposite direction as viewed from
this end of the generator.
These opposing directions are however of like directions, the "U" shape of the wire creating a sight deception. If we pulled the U shape wire straight, the directions are alike, and when we face the two ends together, the two ends show to have opposing direction of rotation.
And it is in the combat of these
two to unwind each other that we have our electrical power, the potential
being twofold, voltage and ampere. Angular
motions P and Q serve as
voltage, the linear (m) the ampere.
Then consider how magnetic lines of motion require "no" guides along which they may pass, except the atoms of the media, while electricity, a derivative of magnetic, in most instances do require wave-guides for to twist a magnetic line into a frenzy of turns.
to this rule may be found with the static form of electricity, where large or
small wheels of motion are brought upon clouds and various other substances
that otherwise do not serve well as guides for the flow of current.
In the case of
thunderstorms, and also in batteries, or any capacitance, point X
is not a direct coupling but a point or area of resistance, a semi-open
circuit. It is for that reason that
static electricity can rise to such high voltage levels with little or no
Turns of motion
Reference figure 10-6; To utilize the power of electricity we generally tap from either end to the middle, or from the two ends in which the opposing movements of rotation may find their "turns of motion" in which to balance or appease themselves (figure 10-6).
Turns of motion then is simply to install intermediate wheels to take up the difference, which in essence is what a gearbox or an automatic transmission does between the high rpm of the engine and the stationary or slow moving wheels of the vehicle.
figure 10-6 is fundamental for all that is connected between the
terminals of any current. A
coil has physical turns of motion which work just as well as the unseen
electrons which conduct the turns around their cores in a straight length of Nicromium
wire that is used as a heating element to toast our bread in the
Reference figure 10-7; While magnetic waves come by alignment and electrical waves by twisting these magnetic waves, radio waves are produced analogous to sound waves, by a compression with the use of resonator's or oscillator.
This compression is not a compression upon the structural formation of the substance so as with sound (Figure 10-7-S) but upon what we came to call; "the pathways of motion" (Figure 10-7-T).
Figure 10-1 illustrated the capacity of these engines as the hearts or pumps of nature. We must not think that the orbital motion of the electrons serves no other purpose than to pump photons and change energy levels.
They in fact serve a real purpose,
they are the very potential and kinetics of all the forces in nature, each
on their own level, or magnitude as I call it.
the ability to provide power, a gyro whose angular momentum has a potential of 5
lb, means; it requires 5 lb of force to displace it.
It does not mean that once set in linear motion its potential is equal to
5 lb, nor that a 5-lb. force could stop it.
For with the gyro set in motion, linear inertia is added to the angular
An automobile with a running engine also has potential, but not until this potential is utilized to set the vehicle in motion will it be kinetic. So also with the engines of nature, their potential is in the intrinsic value as well as in the inertia of their orbital velocity.
Any conductance for a line of force thus coming upon it will utilize only
as much of the potential as required. And
any modulation coming upon them will be transmitted at their value of
"constant" the maximum velocity, of 300.000 km/see, which also is the
minimum velocity, wherefore it is called a "velocity of constant".
The modulation of radio waves is of course along the perimeter of all atoms and molecules, which at once explains both their velocity and how they can pass through all media with little or no obstacles. Figure 10-7 serves to illustrate this by arrows T.
In order to generate a radio-pulse, we cannot just go outside and hit the air, since in so doing we hit upon the whole substance doing nothing more than creating sound to our ears. Instead we must descend down into the atomic and molecular order to arrive at the very lines of force, to the order of nature where the electrons play forth their universal momentum.
But how do we
get there to descend upon something so macroscopic and invisible as well as
immaterial? How in fact do we leave
the substance of nature to arrive in a world of motions and coordinates, in a
world as one put it, "without physical reality?"
Very simple: We take hold of a magnetic line of force, and tie knots in it. Then, we let it take itself away at the speed of light, and our partner on the other end can untie our knots.
The trouble with all this was, we never knew how to grab a hold of a magnetic line until we discovered that we could isolate them by twisting them in a frenzy of voltage and ampere. It was then that we were able to put dents into it, which could be read, at any station down the line.
And so in discovering electricity, using wires as wave-guides, we obtained a firm grip of a magnetic line. But to turn them into even higher frequencies to play our tunes, we had to find a way to resonate, or to cause to resonate. We might even have tried to break it up, to send pulses of "it" into the air.
And so what was needed was something analogous to a transformer, the principle of which is to obtain a separate wave by inducement. It then came our advantage that this induced radio wave was both able to travel through guides as well as without guides in the air.
For again, in order to be generated, it had to be within and upon metal guides. Moreover, the electric wave itself cannot travel without the air of such guides, nor be cut from its source without losing it altogether.
electric wave thus serves only to cause resonance and to carry the induced wave
to the point of transmission. From
here on the radio wave travels on its own.
By illustration figure 10-7, E is the electric wave and resonator which induces a carrier wave upon the pathway (t) which is taken away by momentum (m). The carrier pattern is then further modulated to contain the information we wish to transpose in either of three ways, amplitude modulation (AM), frequency modulation (FM), or pulse code modulation (PCM).
The essence of a radio wave thus is a modulation upon the general motion of the media in the form of either pulses or a continues sine formation.
And rather than saying, the wave is merely a rider upon a momentum to transpose it, which is not diminishing, it has its own momentum that may be amplified to different levels but which are diminishing.
Not the velocity is diminishing, but the power levels are. Thus we conceive a radio wave to pass through the media by both its own momentum (analogous to water waves) and by that of the momentum of the engines of nature.
Light waves are created in much the same way that radio waves are produced, but in a lower magnitude of nature where we no longer require to use our electric wave for resonance. Instead, we use it to cause the atoms and molecules of a filament to resonate to the tune of light in its higher frequencies.
And just as
magnetic lines, electrical waves and radio waves find their way around the
perimeter of nature's engines, so light travels along these same pathways.
But there is something different to the nature of the wavelength of light comparable to that of the previous waves. And like the pathways. in which they all travel - is not something clear-cut (to say it is one thing or another), so light in its nature is not clear-cut, and if anything two-fold in its nature of being.
When we look at a radio-wave passing along, we gave the momentum of
nature a "none" diminishing value while the momentum of its power
level was diminishing. (A wave
passing by its own momentum has the media as a resistance).
Light however, for all observation, is none diminishing. This is not surprising since it has the momentum of nature's pathways as a constant acceleration. But so do radio waves. Yet what about the power-level of light then which seems none-diminutive?
If light is indeed nothing more than a modulation, it must have its own momentum, since it stays in a straight line passing untold many pathways crossings and diversions by which any wave if it had not a momentum of its own, would not stay in a straight line.
Thus its momentum keeps it on a straight path, while the propulsion factor is furnished to it. But then again assuming light as nothing more than a wave formation, its power level should have a diminishing value, for is it not in the fundamentals that the very media will then act as a resistance? And do not radio waves diminish?